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26 min read

GAMSAT Example Questions

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Written By
Alexandra Churchill

Free GAMSAT Practice Questions & Written Answers

Looking for some GAMSAT example questions to gauge their difficulty, or maybe even just a bit of practice?

Before we get started, it’s important to recognize that the GAMSAT is designed to assess your ability to understand and analyze written and visual information. We recommend that you allocate some time to either learn or revise scientific theory during your exam preparation, as the GAMSAT covers chemistry, biology, and physics in addition to concepts in the humanities. You can find the free GAMSAT  questions below.

You can even download the whole questions and answers in PDF to take it as a mini mock exam. 

GAMSAT Section 1 Practice Questions: Reasoning In Humanities

Questions 1 - 4 are based on excerpts from the novel Hard Times by Charles Dickens.


In the hardest working part of Coketown; in the innermost fortifications of that ugly citadel, where Nature was as strongly bricked out as killing airs and gases were bricked in; at the heart of the labyrinth of narrow courts upon courts, and close streets upon streets, which had come into existence piecemeal, every piece in a violent hurry for some one man’s purpose, and the whole and unnatural family, shouldering, and trampling, and pressing one another to death; in 5 the last close nook of this great exhausted receiver, where the chimneys, for want of air to make a draught, were built in an immense variety of stunted and crooked shapes, as though every house put out a sign of the kind of people who might be expected to be born in it; among the multitude of Coketown, generically called ‘the Hands,’ — a race who would have found mere favour with some people, if Providence had seen fit to make them only hands, or, like the lower 10 creatures of the seashore, only hands, and stomachs.

  1. The imagery Dickens paints of Coketown can best be described as:

A.    unnatural and flavourless

B.   cold and dreary

C.   oblique and aggressive

D.   mechanical and uninhabitable

  1. In line 10, “the Hands” refers to which part of society, and in what manner?

A.    working-class, bluntly

B.   middle class, deprecatingly

C.   proletariat, disparagingly

D.   lower class, denigrating

  1. The grammatical structure of this excerpt was used by Dickens’

A.    to cause the reader to finish the passage quickly

B.   to indicate that all the points made are closely related

C.   to elicit a hurried speech rhythm that mirrors the industrial atmosphere

D.   to create rhythm in the passage that helps it read with easy flow

Question 4 is based on the following quote from the opening passage of Hard Times. It is delivered by a local businessman in Coketown to a class of young students.


“Now, what I want is Facts. Teach these boys and girls nothing but Facts. Facts alone are wanted in life. Plant nothing else and root out everything else. You can only form the mind of reasoning animals upon Facts: nothing else will ever be of any service to them.”

  1. The final two sentences are an example of which literary device, employed in what way?

A.    analogy, bitterly

B.   metaphor, ironically

C.   metaphor, sarcastically

D.   analogy, ironically

Questions 5 - 9 are based on comments made by Americans who were interviewed by TIME magazine in a segment on gun control.


“I was nervous everywhere I went. I felt like something could happen at any time… I’m paralyzed on fearsome nights. I’m crying. I’m thinking, what can I do to in this situation to protect my family? It felt like breakdown after breakdown… [So] I changed my mindset and became a gun owner. Because I felt helpless and because I felt weak and because I felt like I was not protecting my children, I decided to become a gun owner. It kind of helped me feel as though I would be able to protect myself and my children if need be.”

Mrs. ST, a mother of 4 who attended the 2016 Black Lives Matter protest, was struck by a bullet while shielding her children from the sniper. 

  1. Before buying a gun, Mrs. ST was feeling overwhelmed with…?

A.    Distrust that others uphold the law

B.   A phobia that her children are unsafe

C.   Paranoia about another shooting

D    All of the above


“My youngest brother, John, was murdered on Aug. 14, 2013. I flew home the next morning. I remember being upstairs in my mother’s bedroom, and I went downstairs and I got one of her really good knives. And I was looking for a place to cut myself. I’ve never been a person who self-mutilates at all. I put the knife down, and I went downstairs and told my mum… I was like ‘Can I call some of my friends who were…professional to give people [like us] help?’”

Ms. CG, whose brother was shot and killed by an assailant during a domestic violence incident.

  1. From this passage, we can infer that Ms. CG friends are professionals in the field of?

A.    Domestic violence

B.   Mental health

C.   Self-harm

D.   Public Health


“A strong Second Amendment is critical to keeping our communities safe. I experienced first- hand just how important it is that there are people with guns that can counter bad people that are out there. Right after the shooting, there were people that just expected that somehow my views on guns would change. It’s easy for people to get reactionary.”

Mr. SS, a Republican who was critically injured after being shot in the hip at a bipartisan charity baseball game.

  1. The people who thought that Mr SS’s views on gun control would change would now

consider him to be

A    Stubborn

B    Tenacious

C    Stoic

D    Optimistic


“I’m probably the controversy in many ways. I take care of people with gunshot wounds. I’ve also been a lifetime shooter… I love guns, and I hate gunshot wounds… My biggest concern is that we’re focusing on the wrong thing. What we need to be focusing on is getting rid of violence. I can tell you as a trauma surgeon, I have seen people killed with a variety of objects… I will tell you brick or a bat or a fist or a knife makes you just as dead as a bullet does. Everyone talks about common-sense gun control. I’m all in favor of that. I just don’t have any idea what it is.”

Dr MF, a Trauma surgeon in Dallas who treated the victims of the 2016 Dallas Black Lives Matter shooting

  1.   Dr MF’s position as a trauma surgeon, and a lifetime shooter, makes his opinion…?

A    Controversial

B    Balanced

C    Divided

D    More significant 

  1. All the comments show that on the topic of Gun control in America, the population is…?

A    Hindered from making progress because of the second amendment

B    Divided on the issue

C    Stuck and not progressing

D    B and C only

Jump to answers

Answers For the GAMSAT Section 1 Practice Questions

Questions 1 – 4 “Hard Times”

Watch a solution video presented by S1 & S2 tutors Andy

  1. Answer: D

Whilst all the options have appeal, it is only D that has both options aptly describing the atmosphere and landscape that Dickens paints. Mechanical is a word exemplified by Dickens’ life in the Industrial era but also in the way he describes the town as a fortification, and its people as “lower creatures” “trampling and pressing one another to death”. The description of the labyrinthine city with “nature strongly bricked out and killing airs and gases bricked in” and where even chimneys struggle to get air is a commentary on how uninhabitable Coketown is, irrespective of the poor souls living in it. Not A It is described as unnatural however not flavourless, eliminating A. Not B It most definitely is a dreary place, however, the climate is not mentioned. Not C Although the word “violent” is used, it is not described as an aggressive place, nor is oblique an appropriate word as it refers to something not being expressed in a direct way, where Dickens is very overt in his description of Coketown.

  1. Answer: C

The trick to this question is two-fold. To be able to distinguish between “working class”, “lower class”, and “proletariat”, and to understand the subtle differences between the adjectives applied. 1) Proletariat is defined as the working class, but not necessarily being poor. 2) Deprecating is to disapprove of something. Denigrating to speak ill of, or belittle. Disparaging is to regard or represent something as being of little worth. By referring to the people as “the Hands”, they are reduced to a single, non-thinking, non-emotional body-part, useful for the work they provide, yet almost non-human and disposable.

Not A the dehumanizing title is derivative of their being perceived as little worth and not being blunt. This is an example of an emotional trap, as you may feel the description is blunt, but it isn’t described in the passage. Not B as they are not the middle class Not D while they are very likely poor, being compared to a hand is a metaphor for their working nature and not their wealth

  1. Answer: C

The liberal use of commas and semicolons allows a rhythm that reads in a rushed way. This hasty flow is indicative of the bleak town as it causes each negative point to effectively roll and tumble into one another, intensifying point after point. Not A the flow derived from the punctuation does make the rhythm faster and leads to finishing the passage quicker, however it is not its primary purpose. Not B many of the points made about Coketown are indeed related to one another, but not all of them, as well this can be done with different punctuation too. Not D the lack of full stops actually makes it harder to read as there are no evident pauses.

  1. Answer: B

An analogy is a comparison between one thing and another, whereas a metaphor is using something as a representative, or symbolic of something else. What might trip you up, is that a metaphor can be used as an analogy, but it is not always the case, nor is an analogy only a metaphor. The phrase is an example of a metaphor as it uses the notion of planting to describe a child’s mind as soil and information/facts as the seed. The irony is a situation/meaning/outcome that has the opposite result to that which was expressed/intended. This quote is ironic because when giving this strict instruction of fact and its utility, the businessman can’t help but use a metaphor to best illustrate his point. Even funnier, is that it is a metaphor of nature, exactly the thing that this educational system is trying to go around, and that which this glum town its quashing. Not A This is not an analogy. Additionally, the tone is not clearly bitter. Not C Sarcasm employs irony (in its use of opposite words to the implied meaning) for the purpose of mocking, and often with a bitter tone. Dickens is not being sarcastic, nor is there any evidence of a sarcastic tone. Not D While it correctly identifies the irony in the statement, this is not an analogy.

How Hard Is The GAMSAT?

GAMSAT Questions 5 – 9 “Gun Violence”

Watch a solution video presented by S1 & 2 tutors Andy

  1. Answer: C

It is important to recognize here that Mrs. ST has a constant fear of shooting, and that it is a rational fear given that she has previously been involved in a shooting. However, it is also an excessive response to the incident. It is not mere distrust, she has extreme trepidation that this could occur at any time. Not A While she does not trust others, her anxiety stems from a fear that “something could happen at any time”. The possibility of another shooting occurring at any time is the reason why she has become paralyzed. Not B A phobia is an irrational, paralyzing fear of something happening. However given Mrs. ST’s previous experience, her fear is not irrational, and therefore cannot be the answer. Not D Since it cannot be A and B, it cannot be D.

  1. Answer: B

The comment is looking at the psychology of family members who have lost someone to gun violence. This can be a physical issue like self-harm or a psychological one like depression and suicidal ideation, which the physical issues likely stem from. CG wants to call people to help herself, as well as her mother with all of the issues that this trauma has caused. Not A The domestic violence incident was what lead to her brother John's murder. This was not what she was referring to when she wanted to call people for help. It was to help her and her mother, not others suffering from the same problems her brother was. Not C While this is the specific problem that Mrs. CG was suffering, this is too narrow a view to taking on the meaning in the passage. The idea that it was to help people “[like us]” tells you that it is not JUST her issues that she is looking for help on, but her mother’s too! Since her son had just been murdered, we can infer that she will need help with her mental health too. Not D This answer suggests a much broader scope than is mentioned in the comment. It could be considered a next logical step where you look at how broader social determinants like incarceration, poverty, and unemployment impact mental health.

  1. Answer: A

The people who would be believing he would change his views on the matter are likely those opposed to guns. Thus, they would look negatively on the fact that after experiencing first- hand the devastating effect of guns that he has remained steadfast on his ideals about guns and the second amendment. In this way, staying fixed on his ideals despite what had happened, would be seen as obstinate. Not B The word tenacious has positive connotations, that even against adversity he continues to fight for what he believes is right. This would be what an NRA member would think of Mr. SS’s story, however, this would not be the person who thinks his views on guns would change. Thus, this would not be the view of someone who thinks his views would change. Not C Being stoic suggests that a person endures pain and hardship without showing their feelings or complaining. This is someone who ignores the issues and carries on. However, given Mr. SS is addressing the problem and using it as a platform to discuss his views on guns, it is not the most correct answer. Not D This is not the most correct answer, although maybe true. People may consider him being optimistic in saying that if the right people are armed then people will be safe! However, those against guns (the people believing his views would change) would say that this is a misguided view.

  1. Answer: C

It has not made it easier, he describes the fact that it has made the issue more complex and he feels that he does not have an answer to the issue of gun control. He sees both sides but finds that this has made it harder for him and divided his view on the fun of shooting from the damage of getting shot. Not A From the comment we cannot say that his view is controversial. It may not be the classical view of someone who is a trauma surgeon and has to clean up people who have been shot, but the idea that his view is belligerent is incorrect. Not B While he is able to see both sides of the coin, the comment does not suggest that this has given him a good middle ground, with a balanced opinion on what he thinks should be done. Rather, it has complicated the issue further. Not D The idea that one person’s opinion is more important or valid than another’s is not suggested in the comment.

  1. Answer: B

Each of these comments has different views on Gun controls. Everyone has their own thoughts and opinions on guns, the utility of them and how they should be regulated. None of them are “wrong”, they all just have divisive opinions on the issue. Not A While this may be the view by the anti-gun population, this would not be the opinion of the other half of the people in these comments, who believe that the second amendment is protecting their right to arm themselves. Not C This is a dynamic issue, with people’s opinions constantly changing. There are continual new developments, with new arguments and propositions, even though the laws are still archaic. So it cannot be considered stuck. Not D Given that C is incorrect, D cannot be correct.

GAMSAT Questions Section 2: Written Communication

Task A

Consider the following comments and develop a piece of writing in response to one or more of them.

Your writing will be judged on the quality of your response to the theme, how well you organize and present your point of view, and how effectively you express yourself.

Comment 1

  • Sometimes by losing the battle you find a new way to win the war.'

Comment 2

  • Success consists of going from failure to failure without losing enthusiasm.

Comment 3

  • But a man is not made for defeat. A man can be destroyed but not defeated.

Comment 4

  • When you have expectations, you are setting yourself up for disappointment.

Task B

Consider the following comments and develop a piece of writing in response to one or more of them.

Your writing will be judged on the quality of your response to the theme, how well you organize and present your point of view, and how effectively you express yourself.

Comment 1

  • Health is the greatest gift, contentment the greatest wealth, faithfulness the best relationship.

Comment 2

  • When a man’s stomach is full, it makes no difference whether he is rich or poor.

Comment 3

  • The greatness of a man is not how much wealth he acquires but in his integrity and his ability to affect those around him positively.

Comment 4

  • He that waits upon fortune is never sure of dinner.

Solutions For The GAMSAT Section 2 Questions

Watch the solution video presented by S1 & 2 tutors Andy

GAMSAT Questions Section 3: Reasoning In Biological And Physical Sciences 

 GAMSAT Chemistry Questions 

 Questions 1 – 5

Within the contents of the human stomach is the strong acid, hydrochloric acid. The body’s acid–base balance is normally tightly regulated through a complex interaction of buffering agents, the respiratory system, and the renal system, keeping the arterial blood pH between 7.38 and 7.42. Several buffering agents exist that reversibly bind hydrogen ions and impede any change in pH. Extracellular buffers include bicarbonate and ammonia, whereas proteins and phosphate act as intracellular buffers. The relationship between multiple buffers in the same solution is described by the isohydric principle. The bicarbonate buffering system is especially key to this, as carbon dioxide (CO2) can be shifted through carbonic acid (H2CO3) to hydrogen ions and bicarbonate (HCO3−) in the following equation:

H2O + CO2 ⇋ H2CO3 ⇋ H+ + HCO3-

If the buffering system malfunctions, the pH level would go beyond the acceptable range. Figure 1 is an acid-base nomogram for human blood serum.

Acid-base nomogram for human blood serum

In addition to the carbonate buffering system, blood also contains the phosphate buffering system as per the equation below:

H2PO4– ⇋ HPO42- + H+

The pH of a buffer solution can be calculated using the Henderson-Hasselbach equation:

 pH = pKa + log10([A-]/[HA])

Where Ka is the acidity constant of the weak acid, [HA] is the equilibrium concentration of the weak acid; and [A-] is the equilibrium concentration of the conjugate base of the weak acid.

At 25 °C, the pKa value of HCl, H2CO3, and H2PO4- are -7, 6.37, and 7.21 respectively.

Note: log10 2 = 0.30 

  1. A patient with a pCO2 level of 20 mmHg, arterial blood [H+] of 45 nmol/L, arterial plasma [HCO3-] of 10 mmol/L would be diagnosed as

A.    Normal

B.    Acute respiratory alkalosis

C.    Chronic respiratory acidosis

D.    Metabolic acidosis 

  1. The minimum number of test/s (measuring the concentration of one molecule ie: H+) required to determine whether a patient’s blood is classified as being in acidosis, normal or alkalosis is

A.    1

B.    2

C.    3

D.    4

  1. Which of the following statements is most likely to be true?

A.    A patient with a pCO2 level of 40 mmHg cannot be diagnosed with respiratory acidosis or respiratory alkalosis

B.    Chronic respiratory alkalosis has a higher pH level cut off than acute respiratory Alkalosis

C.    A patient reading could have an arterial plasma [HCO3-] of 40 M, pCO2 level of 90mmHg and an arterial pH of 7.25 at the same time

D.    A patient who has developed acute respiratory acidosis will overtime transit into chronic respiratory alkalosis

  1. If the pH of HCl of concentration 1×10-1 mol L-1 is 1.00, the pH of 1×10-1 mol L-1 of H2CO3 at 25 °C is approximately

A.    0.74

B.    1.00

C.    3.68

D.    9.42 

       5. In which of the following arrangements is the order of acids correctly predicted according to increasing acidic strength?

A.    HPO42- < H2PO4- < H2CO3 < HCl

B.    H2PO4- < HPO42- < H2CO3 < HCl

C.    H2CO3 < H2PO4- < HPO42- < HCl

D.    HPO42- < H2CO3 < H2PO4- < HCl 

  GAMSAT Physics Questions

   Questions 6 – 10

Biomechanics is the study of the human body in terms of forces, levers, and friction, using principles of physics to analyze human motion. Mechanical advantage is a term used in biomechanics to describe force amplification. The mechanical advantage (of an exerted force) is calculated by dividing the force that the exerted force is trying to overcome, by the exerted force itself; or dividing the effort arm (i.e. distance between the exerted force and the pivot point) by the resistance arm (i.e. the distance between the force that the exerted force is trying to overcome and the pivot point). Torque (T) is also an important concept in biomechanics, and it can be calculated as:

T = F×d

Where F is the force that causes rotation of a lever, and d is the distance between the pivot point and the point where the force is applied. An object is said to be in rotational equilibrium if the net torque of an object is zero, and so all of the torques causing the lever to turn in one direction must equal all of the torques causing the lever to turn in the opposite direction. The principles behind torque can be applied to a bicep curl. A schematic of a bicep curl is shown in Figure 1.

Schematic of a bicep curl

The arrow represents the force vector of flexor muscles in the arm, and the angle represents the angle between the force vector and the horizontal. The vertical black line represents the arm, whilst the horizontal black line represents the forearm. The flexor muscles of the arm enter the forearm via a tendon 5 cm away from the elbow. The forearm pictured is 50 cm long and weighs 1.5kg. it can be assumed that its mass is uniformly distributed.

  1.   Given that the load of the apparatus in Figure 1 is the weight of the forearm itself, the

the mechanical advantage of the force exerted by the flexor muscles in the arm is

A    0.1

B    0.2

C    5

D    10

  1. What force is required by the flexor muscles in the arm to hold the forearm in a

perpendicular position with respect to the arm as shown in Figure 1? Note: sin60°=0.87,

sin120°=0.87; sin30°= 0.5; cos30°=0.87; cos60°=0.5)

A.    17N

B.    65N

C.    75N

D.    86N

  1. What vertical force (if any) must be exerted directly on the elbow joint for the forearm to

remain in this position?

A.    0N

B.    60N downwards

C.    60N upwards

D.    Not enough information to tell

  1. If a 10kg weight was planted on the free end of the forearm, what would be the closest force

required by the flexor muscles in the arm to hold the forearm stable in the position described

in Figure 1[h]?

A.    1000N

B.    2000N

C.    3000N

D.    4000N

  1. If the angle pictured in Figure 1 was increased,

A.    The force exerted by the flexor muscles of the arm would have to decrease to lift a certain weight, and the mechanical advantage would remain unchanged.

B.    The force exerted by the flexor muscles of the arm would have to increase to lift a certain weight, and the mechanical advantage would remain unchanged.

C.    The force exerted by the flexor muscles of the arm would have to decrease to lift a certain weight, and the mechanical advantage would increase.

D.    The force exerted by the flexor muscles of the arm would have to increase to lift a certain weight, and the mechanical advantage would decrease. 

Jump to answers

 GAMSAT Biology Questions

 Questions 11 – 15

Drugs are used to alter some aspect of human physiology. Multiple drugs taken simultaneously can cause interactions due to interference with absorption or elimination of the individual drugs, or due to conflicting effects on a shared pathway. Synergism is when there is an increase in the expected effects when drugs are taken in combination and antagonistic effects occur when mixtures result in reduced effects.

Drugs A, B and C have all been developed to treat hypertensive patients (high blood pressure).

The drugs were given singularly and as combinations at different times to a group of 500 patients over the course of 10 hours. The following table shows the dosages of each drug given and the average blood pressure of all patients

Drug dosage v/s average blood pressure


* Drug concentrations in mg/litre

* BP in mmHg as systolic/diastolic

* Time in hours 

  1. Which of the following is least true?

A.    Synergy between drug A and C is better than between drug A and B

B.    Drugs B and C are antagonistic

C.    There is synergy when the drugs are given as a triple combination

D.    Drugs A and B used in combination have a positive effect on blood pressure in most patients

  1. Which ratio of drugs would have the best effect on blood pressure?

A.    1/1/1 of A/B/C

B.    3/2/0 of A/B/C

C.    0/1/0 of A/B/C

D.    3/0/0 of A/B/C

  1. Which of the following is true about the interaction of drugs B and C?

A.    Drugs B and C antagonize each other, thus creating the increase in BP shown in hours 5-8

B.    The effect of using drugs B and C is equally as detrimental as using drugs A, B, and C together

C.    Drug C is the best out of the three

D.    Drug C appears to have a greater synergistic effect with A than B does.

  1. Which of the following is least true about the variability of blood pressures?

A.    There is the most variability when there is drug B in the system of the patients than any other drug

B.    There is similar variability when there are either drugs A or C but without drug B

C.    Drug A has the least effect on variability out of the three

D.    The average variation in blood pressure of the general population is +/- 20/10 mmHg

  1. Which of the following is the most likely pathway for drugs A, B, and C?

A.    Drugs A, B, and C all have a positive effect on blood pressure. Drug A acts directly on blood vessels, drug B acts on platelets and drug C acts to reduce fluid volume. All three together cause kidney failure Drugs A and C have a positive effect on blood pressure, drug B doesn’t.

B.    Drug A antagonizes drug C but is synergistic with drug B. Drug C acts on the same pathway as drug B

C.    Drugs A, B, and C all have a positive effect on blood pressure. Drug B antagonizes both drug A and C while A acts on the same pathway as C.

D.    Drugs A and B reduce BP, while drug C has no effect. Drug C causes kidney failure when given above 3 mg/L. Drug A is synergistic with drug B. Drug A and C act on the same pathway

Answers For the GAMSAT Section 3 Practice Questions

Chemistry Buffering Systems: Questions 1 – 5

Watch a solution video presented by Section 3 tutor Kristian

  1. Answer: D

Draw the line according to the data, you get metabolic acidosis

  1. Answer: B

By knowing the pH and pCO2, as long as it is less than 7.35 it is acidosis, normal is between 7.35 to 7.42. Above that it is alkalosis. Using the graph there is overlap at given pH’s with a given assignment of blood acidity hence pCO2 is also required.

  1. Answer: A

A is true because of the figure below. B is not true, chronic respiratory alkalosis has a lower pH cut-off. C cannot be true when you read off the graph. No information is given for D, it changes from acidosis to alkalosis.

  1. Answer: C

HCl is a strong acid, and pH of 1×10-1 of HCl gives -log (1×10-1)=1.00. H2CO3 is a weak acid, so the pH should be higher than that. But it cannot be higher than 7 as it is not a base. So C is the answer. You can alternatively do the calculation, but it is slower.

  1. Answer: A

HPO42- is the conjugate base of H2PO4-, so we can expect it has a lower strength than H2PO4. Ka tells you the extent to which the acid dissociates, in other words, how strong the reaction is or how much product is produced. Strong acid means High Ka means low pKa. Therefore HCl is the strongest, then H2CO3 then H2PO4–.

Back to the GAMSAT questions chemistry

Physics Biomechanics: GAMSAT Questions 6 – 10

Watch a solution video presented by Section 3 tutor Kristian

  1. Answer: B

In the stem, it says the mechanical advantage is equal to the effort arm/resistance arm. The effort arm is 5cm long (since it is 5cm from the fulcrum or pivot point) and the resistance arm is 25cm long (since the centre of mass is present at half the length of the object – uniformly distributed). Therefore, the mechanical advantage is 5/25=1/5=0.2

  1. Answer: D

By equating torques (force × distance), the answer can be achieved. Anti-clockwise direction = 5× (vertical force of arm muscles). Clockwise= 25× (1.5×10). by equating both torques in the opposite directions: vertical force of arm muscles = 5(15)= 75N. 75/total arm force = sin60. Therefore, total arm force= 75/cos30 = 75/0.87 = 86N.

  1. Answer: B

The forearm in the diagram is in rotational and translational equilibrium. Therefore, all vertical and horizontal forces must equate to each other. Since the vertical force provided by the arm muscles is 75N upwards and the vertical force provided by the weight of the forearm is 15N downwards, there must be 65 N downwards (75-15) to maintain vertical translational equilibrium. The force at the elbow joint does not contribute to clockwise or anticlockwise rotation because it acts at the pivot point.

  1. Answer: A

By equating the clockwise and anticlockwise torques: 5(vertical force exerted by arm) = 25(15) + 50(100); vertical force = 25(3)+10(100) = 75+1000 = 1075. Total force exerted by arm = 1075/sin60 = 1250N. Closest to this answer is option A.

  1. Answer: B

The angle has no effect on the mechanical advantage, as the parameter is only concerned about the distance between the force exerted and the fulcrum. By increasing the angle, the muscles must work harder to maintain the forearm in a perpendicular position to the arm. This can be seen mathematically: the total force of muscle=vertical force/sinθ. Increasing the angle means increasing the total force.

Best Approach To Study GAMSAT Physics

Biology Pharmacology: GAMSAT Question 11 – 15

Watch a solution video presented by Section 3 tutor Kristian

  1. Answer: C

Option A says A and C tend to reduce blood pressure better when together in comparison to A and B, which is supported by the table, meaning this is true. Drugs B and C are antagonistic because C is shown to reduce blood pressure and B is expected to reduce it (which it seems like it does do when combined with A) but when they work together there is an increase. Drug A and B working together seem to reduce the blood pressure compared to baseline making option D true. C is the least true because the combination seems to raise Blood pressure.

  1. Answer: A

Option B has a good effect on BP; it drops from 150/100 (when not on any drugs) to 130/90 when on this combination. Options C and D are unknown,. When the drugs are given in a 1:1:1 ratio, the blood pressure goes up from 150/100 to 120/80 making A the correct answer

  1. Answer: D

Option A is not a result of antagonism which might not be something everyone is aware of, however, it can also be noted that specific information about hours 5-8 are not given. Option B is difficult to determine with only one measure of B and C together. It should be noted that when considering the differences in the concentration used for the B+C and A+B+C, the small difference in B.P. could be negligible. These two facts make this option possible but it is a grey area. Option C is too broad a statement and we only have one data point; based on that single data point, it does lead to a greater drop in blood pressure than drug A, but it can’t be compared to the effects of Drug B, the effect of which has not been tested independently. Option D on the other hand (in comparison to B) is clear-cut true because A and C together produce a much lower B.P. even at lower concentrations.

  1. Answer: D

This is only for the patients who are all hypertensive. option A is true as all the variability is when B is in the system. Option B is true because of the same reason. C is true as it doesn’t affect the 40/20 and that can be accounted for by the inclusion of B and C.

  1. Answer: A

This is based on the triple whammy of ACEI, NSAID, and diuretic. The combo causes renal failure which results in greatly reduced GFR (usually this occurs over a period of months). Option B is wrong as A doesn’t antagonize C as they are the best combination for reducing blood pressure. Option C is wrong as B has a positive effect with A. Option D is wrong as the best result is with C above 3 mg/L.

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